Différences entre high culture and low culture



2 2 “nothing nothing is new,specially in music”


  Infuential musics from the USA in jamaica mais aussi autres musiques importances de la radio via ondes courtes pour Cleevie


Phil Callender parle d’Ernest Rangling, Miles Davis, Simon and Garfunkel


  Dialectique Technique musicale / Talent



2  Présentation de Phil Callender

Phil Calender drummer of Studio  for many years

 mid 's till early 's

Satta masagana , Rocksteady riddims experimenting, The Soul Brothers band chez Coxsone

histoire des batteurs successifs chez Studio one avant lui-même


2  “I started by studio one by accident

Played on Stars Cornell Campbell Satta masagana, Evening time, de Jackie Mitoo , most of the Heptones songs on the On top album ,pretty looks isn’t all

Come tomorrow de Ken Boothe



FRANCIS, Wigmoore (Zap Pow)


Title: Temporary Lecturer

Courses/Areas of Interest: Nineteenth and Early 2th Century Caribbean & European Intellectual History; Literary Theory & Criticism; cultural Theory, & the Political Economy of Race & Ethnicity, Gender & the Body

Wigmoore Francis was guitarist of Incrowd band…a seventies band signed by island records

Because of the political tournmoil (problem) the group stopped… some of the members migrated to the US

Worked of most of Incrowd songs that were put out by island records  island records .........................................

Wigmoore today is a professor of history at UWI

2 2 started professionaly mid ’s I am the baby of this group A fait davantage fait du live que du studio one i was palying with incrowd i was also playing with Zap pow Zap Pow  




  Phil à Wigmoore : I think you played the last war with zap pow qui a été resamplé par Collie budz



Phil Callender

I’ve been influenced by numerous type of music, I like jazz rock, also bossa nova

Origins of reggae music par phil callender

As a drummer I saw Jonkonnu and Mento were the indigenous music from Jamaica

Reggae and particularly Rocksteady emerge from these elements


For instance, Lloyd Knibbs did a lot of experimentation in playing aspects of mento and bossa nova in combination with the ska tune I don’t l think a lot of people realize that, it has influenced many drummers including myself


Certain aspects of “Rockers” and even Dancehall has a lot of Jon konnu in it and Sly Dunbar made a lot of experimentation in that area

 2 Wigmoore francis :  

I am not a drummer i am a guitarist , I would still count revival as being amongst my influence even if Revival is not known for his guitar but for his drumming and vocals, it built my style of guitar is very sensitive to rythm this is something I got from Georges Benson, famous, who emphasize his rythmic play,  not only Melody...


 It come to me through Revival but filtered through Mento


 2 à  

It does not mean that I am a revivalist because I had to strip aside from the religious part of it and just concentrate on the musical part of it . So I am not saying that I am more spiritual than anybody else, but certainly there is an influence here and the influence not just applies to drummers but to vocalists and anybody who is aware of the history and the connections



Cleevie : ses débuts Pentecostal church et débuts drums (tambourine)

For me, most definately I was influenced by pentecostal church because I was a member a pentecostal church , in the ’s I went to a high scool where I met Steven Stuart, a keyboard player who did work for BMW as well, over the years, his mother was a minister in a Pentecostal church where steven stuart was the organist, he invited me to come to church with him one night , I started hearing beats that I wasn’t exposed to as much like, u know : tambourines, really pentecostal revival type of music


And it actually influenced some of the works of Steelie and Cleevie did, the Poco man jam riddim for instance and I started researching more deeply




I am from a type, kneetly family

Summer holidays we used to travel to different rivers and beaches all over jamaica but one of the beaches we went too one year, we took a route through st thomas where for the first time I heard Revival music live, on the roadside there was this revival thing going on and bwoyy, it really blew me away an I say bwoy it stayed with me…
 the kind of beats that the drummers on


  and doing more research I realised that they were so many beats, the Etu, Kumina, that were from Africa a part of reminesense of music we took with us from Africa and I started including some of the elements of those beats in our music DANCEHALL and i would say that dancehall came from those beats, a lor of those beats  and i can confirm it cause i was the person who did it !  2



Steelie also came to studio one morning and said he could not sleep all nightlong because there was this revival taking place, a tent was set up near his house, and all night this music was playing so he said bwoy “if you cannot beat it, join it”» so he came to the studio and said bwoy : cleevie : Him wanted start including some tambourine in the riddims but at the same time I was being inspired by what i was hearing at church  2


 2 Poco man jam riddim,Dem Bow, Reggaeton birth


There was a drummer there, he was not trained or anything and when he was not there , I played and took over so, I started playing the same beats with the tambourins and so and so. Of course I was doing electronic music, so I started programming some of the beats and what we came on with, the pocco man jam riddim eventually, was introduced in the hispanic market : El general in Panama started using it in the “flip side» of the rididms that we made .We gave Bobby Digital a version of the riddim and Shabba made a song named “Dem bow” and it ended up in                                in Puerto rico and for some reasons Puerto Ricans made what they call Reggaeton so reggaeton actually came from reggae dancehall

-     Wigmoore : even this song of pliers and chaka demus by sly dunbar you can hear that kind of beat in it

-     Cleevie: but the first beat like that was made by Steelie and Cleevie in  : Poco man jam ,    2


 2 History of the pocco man jam riddim

The One Drop was what running the place in Jamaica reggae one drop with the third beat accent


Steelie and I wanted to do something different ...We need something new. What can we do new ? So, we stopped listening to everything that was out there, we stopped listening radio, we just took time out to just try find something from our roots…that little “remnant of the daney” i would say ..a just natural, natural  we just worked with what we were feeling…and we took time out to listen to people to listen to the rythm of life, and just observe the people, we used to leave the studio at time , drive go to trenhc town go to tivoli, just drive through jamaica, and just listen to how people spoke, the rythmin speech, body language , just looking at a fat woman, walking with a basket on her head, things like that that were influences… and a melting pot of what became Dancehall   and the revivalism is a key part of that,

 the inspiration from church,  from reggae as well, we listened to everything and the beat of pocco the first programming, those days we did not have pro tools we played with what we had) so the 2   ‘he bangs his board)  is what we started with…

but there was something it missing after the basic part of the thing , the core of it ..It needed a sub tttttttt ttttt ttttttt 2  And I did not have it those days ;a oberheim drum machine I was using, did not have that sound So I started experiment tuning the drums out of the box, tuning … pitching the tings in different ways that were probably not meant to be in the spectrum of the tuning , it did not sound natural it all started making the things sound closer to the ethnic sounds that we hearing in st thomas and so  



Steelie had a bass (machine) that, again by accident, this thing just happened, the bass fell, a little keyboard which was really meant to play high frequencies but when it fell from him, and he took it up it was not working right, he took it to a technician, not really trained music, but he did electronice.. When he got it back and plugged it, it was playing BASS and the bass was really smooth and ideal sound that we were looking for...PERFECT, DEEP AND SMOOTH


It sounded like the Studio One bass after you run it through an amplifier and you get that deep boom zzzzzzzzz..


This is it, the combination of these two sounds and the downbeat…  (he bangs and imitates the sound it was making). Wooohh I remember Roy Francis, it was mixing lab studio we were worki,ng at that time, everybody was amazed by this new sound… new thing , new era  2

Moi : “And the rollings because I am studying

..There are the same in revival ?


Some of those things we could not program it… to feel like the real revival music so I decided to add live elements to the rythm, so…Mixing lab studio had a pair of tymbales with the two drums here, so i said Steelie, I want to use that… Can't program this to feel the right way, so on top of the program….(He bangs again the board  ), I decided to add on top it tymbales playing the feels, the revival type of songs; so I pitched the tymbales in a tuning, like a higher pitch range than what it was in the studio, and started to put it on the finns ????

  so we ended up with the  (He bangs again the board), …...and bwoy the things just worked together so well…say yes this is it… we have it now !  

Over the years we started experimenting more and more like Shabba Ranks came, we produce this album, not the one before this one, went gold , it had “trailer load a girls” that had the same kind of beat trailer load of girls which is one the biggest shabba sale hit songs and then ting a ling a ling


We come after with a beat we call it Giggy

Steelie came out with this name, I don’t know how he got that name from but he used to love gig as boy ,he used to make gigs out of wood carve into a corned sheet and hold it ou and watch string ??? ,   

Wigmoore says you should copyright because hin nicknamed Gig





“  in addition to the sound of the music changing, and the introduction of digital equipment we also wanted to create new music, something fresh, something different so it was a deliberate things we were starting searching for ,new songs, different , we did not have thesound digitally ”  


I used to do music with my mouth and sampled it

Well in the revival music, in the church sometimes u hear something like hum hum  

Wigmoore : trumping

Cleevie : How u call that ?

Trumping, well, I did not even know the name and we used to be in the studio and do that on the downbeat...on the riddims with the songs There were riddims like…..I made a riddim track named the Nine nights in the ’s more recently (2) and I could not find the right sounds and one day I just walked around the room, in the studio and hit on wood (  ) this cannot do it… the board wood, we used at studio 2, the wood resonated, I just walked around and try knock the things.(il frappe) .not that  wood was what I …yeah

  à    like this for instance ( il frappe le bois)



Not the right sound over here but we eventually used the sound that the wood. In the studio, hit the side of the..wood and record it adding to EQ until we found sounds close to I would call hearing travelling to St Thomas


  à 2 22

Ce n’est pas des tambours que l’on peut trouver dans le commerce mais fait main avec des peaux de chèvre…Drums you could not buy in the music stores for instance, they used to carve their own things, get goat skins, make their own drums I would take a a card board box??? for instance and added to the overall combination of sounds, hit the skin until we found what we flet right

The flooring of studio 2 for instance, everything was used to make riddims and I remember on the Nine nights riddim I was looking for a sound close to a break roto ???2’’’  and could not find one… I had to go outside at my car pull off the break rotto playing it recorded it and put it back in my car…That night I could not leave the studio without having this sound



At Jammys we did not work so late in the night because this area was volatile

We were the musicians and we worked close to the artists


2  Body work shop Riddim



Steeely grow up in the ghetto when I met steely, Steely used to walk to my house

let me go back to the beginning, I grow up in a house with all my brothers choosing music as a career path that was first and foremost

I was fortunate to have parents who encouraged it, most homes in Jamaica their parents encourage their children to be lawyers, doctors, that kind of career paths but we recognize that we could not have a country with only doctors and lawyers…It would not work at all, we need to have entertainment, We love music I grow up seeing my grand father playing accordeon and consentina??? and these kind of things...Going deeper, I discovered that even his parents were playing violin and so and so …so we love music, have it inna our blood, music was there I don’t know for back It went ??? but all my brothers today are musicians

We started a group in 2 called the Brownie bunc. Glen brown is my eldest brother he is Taurus riley bass player today, Dalton brownie, big ship production, gutarist, Noel Brownie, he produced Knock on heaven’s door with Ed robinson , he was musician at big ship studio, he designed this (my) studio for instance, Danny Brownie , Main street label. He dis “Heads High” with Mr Vegas, Main street crew and so and so, and of course myself: Steelie and Cleevie. My children also are taking that direction, my son Neil Brownie, he’s a producer but he s in college at the moment,

Anyway , we were invited to work on a recording session with Earl , he lives in England now, Earl  was also produced by Augustus Pablo, he did a lot of work with him

So Steelie and I linked up after my brother Dalton went to the 2 tribes of Israel and became a Rastafarian, Steely ‘s mother was an executive in the 2 tribes , Sister Nanny they used to call her, I don’t know if the names was relatived to the marron about she got the name. Steely followed my brother Dalton, home, our home was open to anyone interested in music. My mother taught piano, even today she’ s  and still teaches piano, still teaching, keeping her mind active. She does the things that will keep her far from being senile and at , she remembers tings when she was 2, she s the family archivist I would say , she archives everything, she would tell you the day I got married ,everything

Steelie came to my house and and we started doing a jam sessions, recognize that we had similar tastes for music but Steely, as he developed as a musician, he ended up working with Gregory Isaacs eventually and started touring the world with Gregory isaacs. In the ’s I worked on session with steely .After the sessions with Earl  ,Augustus Pablo liked the sound that we had , and started us invited us to work on some sounds ..we worked on African must be free album, HughMandell, and  White mice and Yami Bolo were amogst on the team, we ended up doing sessions  at Tuff Gong, Nadine sutherland when she won the taste talent contest in the  ‘s ..we went to tuff gong and one night we were finishing working on a song, was waiting on a cab to pick up a taxi and I did not know Bob Marley was upstairs and actually came and was looking on the session

He liked the song then ;: steelie on piano , ity was a bass player they call him Left toe, sangy davis on guitar, Dalton my brother on guitar as well, we were waiting on the cab and bob marley came down   2




We sat on the steps, working out a song, an d seh if oonuh willing, mek we go record it to me, bobo marley was a king , a reggae king to most people, so I made the taxi leave of course just to do this session with bob marley, to me that was one of the greatest experience of my life, he was meticulous, yet humble, and embraced technology cause that was the first session ni have recorded where a click track was used on every songs which made it easier to remix , bob marley songs , bobo marleyrecoreded with a click  


And then listening to bob marley’s music, I also recognized he was one of the first reggae artist to recird with a riddim box : So jah she was recorded with a riddim box ,so if the King uses that riddim box, I started embracinfg technolofy as well although I was trained as drummer..I read drums music, I taught myself to read drums music and out of that I got exposed to all type of riddims patterns from all over the world, I was not limited to just what I heard anymore…and I could read drums music abnd starting to do military rudiments , I decided to strat using what I ve learnt over the years  


So there was a riddim called Koloko ….Steely played the bass fi complement, starting putting rolls, different military styles beats and I improvised on and used some of what I ve read and the military rudiments but outside of tha, started tuning drum..I came with a beat called Giggy (2 2) where we used…..dave Kelly was an enginnerr, not having our own studio as yeat, recording some stuff a t penthouse studio, some things at music works, gussie Clarke studio,  well we been doing lots of session with Donovan Germain, liking the sound and the style we had, And alos music works, gussie Clarke we worked on telephone’s love , lots of hits , most of the hits,


Tune recorded with bob Marley (stiff necked fools)and we woked too we come from trenctown townas well, I think there was a third song but not sure a thing thatywas not released, it was not completed    


 2 Which enery , intention were behind Giggy’s riddim ?

As a drummer, phil can tell you , I sing as well, cvasue my frist recording actually was as  a singer, my brother can tell u the whole story but my brothers and I we started singing before we palyed SO I learnt harmony from my mother where I started learning chords, cords  ???  . thestrucutre, different type of chords,and the mood that it gives you for instance, recognysing  that some sad songs u ve got minor, if you want something romantic you might go major 


With drums when i decided to go drums, my brother, Glen, he was the frist in the family to start playing an instrument, when my father used to travel a lot to the states he lived in the stats for a while before to hget married to my mother. My father wanted to play bass and asked my father to buy him a bass guitar my father saw a six strings regular guitar thinking it was better guitar tha  strings he sent the guitar.. my brother was not happy, my brother who follow gle ninterms of age Dalton deciced to take up the guitar andstarted play guitar ans Glen waited to have a bass guitar  he guitar and glen waited  

Keith and Tex they used to come to my home , Bob Andy, people like that , my father was a builder , was in the construction industry and he built a room to try get the noise out of the house because we started banging and playing everything


Keith and Tex started writing songs at my home and little by little bands asked us if they can rehearse at my house

Mickey Chung and geffery chung were memebes of the no generation band and when they heard us coming down to rehaearde when they heard us singing one day, georffrey chung said oh why don t record like the micheal Jackson group ? At the time I was like one yzear younger than MJ and admired his songs ,the range he was singing and I could sing like that too so.I .ending up doing my first song doing a cover of “ we ‘ve got little things going” recorded by the Jackson  originally but I really wanted to play an instrument outside of singing and Glen sat us donw one day and asked us : which instrument you d really want to plau ? I chsoe drums, dalton the guitar, etc…What we ended up was to beable to form a band but being in school and each one of us being in school different years and so and so we  all got absorbed into differents groups which teared apart of the vision of being together in the same band, and started touring etc…I became a member of the Incrowd band, Phil callender is here, the leader of the band that was ,  and steely joined the roots radics band starting playing a lots of sessions RRadics  playing on junjo laws productions Yellowam ( I am getting married in the morning,  zuguzum, whole heap of  tunes…Diseases, 

Steely still wasn’t really happy, he wanted to work with me

Steely wanted to work with me and heused to tour with G isaacs , (England and ….some songs with other people He worked on a song popular in France with roots radics band and it hit in france ,

He played on night nurse

Black cindirella Errol Dunkley

Ok Fred ? A big hit in the ’s in France 

Anyway , Steely went to france recorded in France, this big hit

Anyway drums was my passion , I started hitting on anything I could find  with my mothe baker…spoons etc…  until my father coud not take it any more and bought me a drums set

Willie Sturat from the Thirld band he used to coma at my house and I learnt a few riddims from him. I must big up Willie Stuart  2

Thrid world was a success story… they were touring a lot and buying equipment  so willy buy a OBERHEIM DX DRUM MACHINE he decided tosell because he bought a dmx after that thinking that it is better,  so of course I was interested he sold me first drums set as well, but when he bought the drum machine I was always in technology, In the early days, when my brother glen had a sound system the man who made his amplifiers used to use the same room we had as a music room the wind ,the transformers and so and so so as kids….we always hang around he taught us how to make magnet and likkelt things to experiment…  could do mass code and all things like that ,batteries that could shock and so and so

We had a jockey used to live next door too, The Mackenzies and they used to make batteries to shock horses, doing horse racing used to shock to make the mfaster  

I give u too much iof their secrests but it part of history

So drums machine now

I WAS fascinated by drum machine when willy bought it

First one he had but iused to open them out and look ou how the whole tings was made and 2  the E prawn, the chip that mke the sound I used to shift them around , putting the chip that was meant to be put in , the snear slot for instance, put in different places, and realize that ,bwoyy , different sounds that were not natural sounds that you would get from a natural drum kit, starting getting different kind of sounds and there was a chip made to the place tin the percussion slo,  I started moving them around and put it in the tom slot : the Chinatown was born , born for Bobby Digital il mime et chante le riddim…….Hit songs Chinatown riddim   

  knowing keys cause I used to sing ,I never played guitar it was my brothetr started eventually playing guitar, but my mother used to teach us harmony, I started pitching tings creating melodies out of drums and tings like dat  and the giggy riddim was one of those , pitched to specific notes,

The other ting that I believe made steely and cleevie sound though, sound like something, different from one I was hearing from everybody else who even started copying us playing, computer stuff and so, is that my drums sounds I used to listen for dominant overtones and so although things were percussive, the snear drums and so and so I pitched everything to the key of the music although it was drums, I used to hear overtones and snear that , used to have a dominant tone to it, just put everything in a certain key,to lock with the key of the music although it was percussions or drum

  Even punnany riddim, the cow bell ..listening to tok tok , listening to that note, that tone, was more dominant than everything else and it just made everything sound so sweet and better even if it is a drum roll, tu ku tu ku tum

U know like tuning tings to a certain format…I don t know it just made things sound better   


I tried to explain it before but got distracted

Steely he grow up in the ghetto, live the hard life that any ghetto youth would live ,growing without his father , grow with his grand mother and mother but his mother was young when she had him, and he had to make life by himself quite early he started selling star to survive , Jamaican newspaper at the time they introduced a competition they call Star King , for the person who sold the most newspapers would get a special prize, and steely won it ; 2 and I admired thatabout steely that although he grow up really poor , he was a fighter..;he would pfffff just pour card ???   but he would read the newspaper before he ven sold one copy and he could tell you anything that happen steely had a special gift , photographic memory that was so bowyyy, amazing…You could give steely  digits ??? , he looked at it for about  seconds and it was burnt inot his memory but he did not have the opportunity to go turshury ??? or he might have been relay somebody else, different than steely the musician ,; I think it was just ording???? that we remained that we worked  as musicians but if u give  digits   ppl walked in the room and gice him their phone numbers and we did a recording session Steely ‘d remembzer every number and could tell you backwords, anyway ,that what you wrote was a little bit larger, the letter or the number might be slant and he’d remember it     

And after years from the ’s playing music, steely could go back and playu every songs without any mistakes , the memory was incredible 2  

So he was really special ..Steely also had something different about him, he could you tings before it happened

Seriously and I tell you this is really sad for me,  and really sometimes, I don’t know, Stelly stopped one day in traffic say : “Cleevie” , Steely prediceted his death, ….He told me in 2, He saw it, he said : yes I see it, 2  

 Steely could tell you that certain things was going to change in the music industry, he could tell you if somebody wanted us to do a recording session and was going to try  to ripp us off…so I really relied on Steely a lot to as a guide, 


2  Future , new career now ?

There was one other person that we always said was the hand between the steely and the cleevie , that s my brother Danny Brownie, he was the guitarist on most of the songs that guitar was required for and Dalton as well, he played guitar on some of the songs and the songs that you hear that s and c that guitar was there, it was either Danny or Dalton. Apart from..;there is one other song Boops Riddimwith Supercat , that was Bore peep ??? who played on it ,have to give him credit. OF course, there were songs if there is anybody else required : horns, anything at all, we still guided it as the producers than musicians, we would be telling how we wanted it, certain texture, that might br different from how the person would normally play and tone the instrument..We went for things that we could feel based on our experience over the years, listening to Studio One and so and so, anf you know I worked at Studio One as well for anumber of years in the late seventies, might just after Phil , I was a a studio overdubbing a Bob Marley song when Bob Marley died; Coxsone stopped the session and sqaid : CVleevie come here: listen , it s on the news , Bob Marley died and I was working on a Bob Marley song, modernizing some of the things that , you know, he felt needed to be worked on.2  

2 2 U still did not tell me : Body work shop where the vocals huuuuu come from ?


Things that people thought they were samples, we actually made the songs ourselves, even nine night riddim tip tipt pit and you hear thr ooooo oooo voice, is me singing ,and people think it like samples, so Body work shop ,there are things that we would go far people who could create the songs that we wanted , we went for Opera singer Year  with Beenie Man, is a opera singer , we actually took the person in the studio and recorded it, telling him the melody we wanted, is like really music for us, bowyy is like science really 2  we inventing, putting the rights element on components to make it connect with people, cause we study people, we watch people, is a lot of psychology in getting artist To in perform ???  the way you want to perform 2

To sound whey, I want to tell you, there were times when Steelie and I create a certain feeling in the studio, if we wanted to be happy , we told jokes sometimes, if we want somebody to sing a song in a way to feel sad, sometimes we would tell sad stories but many times artists would never know what we were doing you know, we were trying to create the feeling that might be necessary to get the best out of the song , Dawn Penn : no no no for instance, we had her stand in the engineering room and sang the song and she say oh maybe should I sing it again in the voicing room and ,we said :” allright” just to satisfy her but it did not sound the right way, we mixed the  one that was sung in the enginerring room standing in front of us while we played the riddim like the old days of playing and singing together and the song hit ! 2  

It happened in  or so earlier, our first billboard hit with Foxy Brown on the  Taxi riddim ; Can I hold you tonight the first hit, it was recordfed in the enginerring room, to get the mood and the feeling that the artist just was not getting in the voicing one, you stand there

And at Jammy’s actually, before he built up a bigger room, the artist used to stand in front of the mixing board and we set up the mic right there pointing in that direction casue it was basically one room, and it created a certain kind of song, hit after hit       

That s the golden age of dancehall

So when

2  I Tell u something sound systems played a very great role in training artists, make them spontaneous, making dub plates, they had to be spontaneous, artists had to just perform and dubplates trained a lot of artists like this, not on tape, I am talking about the era when you had the dub machine and u better do the dub without messing up, just straight non stop, Ninjaman was great that way, just non stop and I tell you, is just as ??? technology came around , we started punching it , doing overpart, so and so which really make music sell on the international market, sometimes yopu need perferctionbut actually if you listen to most Sudio One songs today where people, phil can tell you, take the riddim straight down and u maybe have two or four trakcs and you cannot do overdub.Most of the songs of that little era, it was human and we did not mind..sometimes we did, steely and cleevie played his bass lines non stop to finish 2 22

2 22

Basically you ve got spoiled over the years, getting technology, u start fixing things but sometimes I really like tearing ???  a little real …The tings was really real,

Leave the mistakes, we are people 2  

2  Giggy Riddim styles is coming back , A lot of the producers and musicians are coming back to the real original dancehall-

-     Seemingly They are in lack of inspiration


2  Black Widow riddim

I tell you we started buying modules, I mean being in technology, u start searching, cause sometimes u get inspired by some of the songs the creators…As a matter of fact, This module , this same one here, the Korg is the one we got the bass for Black Widow 2  out this unit here.

Cause we move around things sometimes, we move tings that module for  instance



It gives all the filters , I mean ,White noise, peak noise, tones that you now, as I said musicians have to be scientists

Really we are scientist basically, some of us mad,

2 I tell you this module, Black widow, when we bought the module , sometime we start searching and going through sounds that people make for you, rpecreated that you can build on and make music and that ons of the sounds tha bass (he sings) : techno ! and steely said cleevie , yhis is it we re going to go techno , we ‘re going to use some of the techno sounds  

The world basically has become a melting pot of influences

And we influence and are also influenced Nothing wrong working the sounds other people created. Black widow was the end result of those experiments  2


Steely and cleevie we started ou as musicians and sound systems was part oth the thing so I used to listen a lot to what and even Coxsone? Duke reid and coxsone they used to experiment , when they made a track, the sound system was a testing ground,usind ss to test, we used to test how people reacted to the things we made in the studio… by playing it  before we released the songs, this kinda learning from the days when studio one and treasure isle did their things 2